Python style guide¶
This document describes expected practices when writing Python code. There are occasions when you can break these rules, but be prepared to justify doing so when your code gets reviewed.
There are well-established conventions in the Python community, and in general we should follow these. General Python conventions, and required reading:
PEP 8: Style Guide for Python Code
PEP 257: Docstring Conventions
The Zen of Python:
python3 -c "import this"
Note that our standards differ slightly from PEP-8 in some cases.
Coding standards other projects use:
We delegate most formatting decisions to black. All Python code (except for a few files
specifically excluded in
.pre-commit-config.yaml) must be formatted
using it. You should be using Launchpad’s default pre-commit setup, which automatically formats your code using
isort before you commit.
Consistency with existing code is the top priority. We follow PEP-8 with the following exceptions:
CamelCase: classes, interfaces (beginning with
lowercase_underscores: functions, non-method attributes, properties, local variables
Private names are private¶
You should never call a non-public attribute or method from another class.
In other words, if class A has a method
_foo(), don’t call it from
anywhere outside class A.
If you haven’t already, read PEP 257.
In general, everything that can have a docstring should: modules, classes, methods, functions.
Docstrings should always be enclosed in triple double quotes:
When a class or a method implements an interface, the docstring should say
You should use field names as defined in the epydoc documentation but with reST syntax.
Using `name` outputs a link to the documentation of the named object, if pydoctor can figure out what it is.
Here is a comprehensive example. Parameter descriptions are a good idea but not mandatory. Describe in as much or as little detail as necessary.
def example2(a, b): """Perform some calculation. It is a **very** complicated calculation. :param a: The number of gadget you think this function should frobnozzle. :type a: ``int`` :param b: The name of the thing. :type b: ``str`` :return: The answer! :rtype: ``str``. :raise ZeroDivisionError: when ``a`` is 0. """
Each module should look like this:
# Copyright 2009-2011 Canonical Ltd. All rights reserved. """Module docstring goes here.""" __all__ = [ ... ]
standard_template.py has most of this already, so save yourself
time by copying that when starting a new module. The “…” should be filled
in with a list of public names in the module.
PEP-8 says to put any relevant
__all__ specifications after the module
docstring but before any import statements (except for
imports, which in most cases we no longer use). This makes it easy to see
what a module contains and exports, and avoids the problem that differing
amounts of imports among files means that the
__all__ list is in a
different place each time.
There are restrictions on which imports can happen in Launchpad. Namely:
View code cannot import code from
import *cannot be used if the module being imported from does not have an
Database code may not import
zope.exceptions.NotFoundError– it must instead use
These restrictions are enforced by the Import Pedant, which will cause your tests not to pass if you don’t abide by the rules.
Use absolute imports (
from foo.bar import Bar), not relative imports
from .bar import Bar).
We encourage importing names from the location they are defined in. This seems to work better with large complex components.
With the increased use of native Storm APIs, you may encounter more circular
import situations. For example, a
MailingList method may need a
reference to the
EmailAddress class for a query, and vice versa. The
classic way to solve this is to put one of the imports inside a method
instead of at module global scope (a “nested import”).
Short of adopting something like Zope’s lazy imports (which has issues of its own), you can’t avoid this, so here are some tips to make it less painful.
Do the nested import in the least common case. For example, if 5 methods in
model/mailinglist.pyneed access to
EmailAddressbut only one method in
model/emailaddress.pyneeds access to
MailingList, put the import inside the
emailaddress.pymethod, so you have fewer overall nested imports.
Clearly comment that the nested import is for avoiding a circular import, using the example below.
Put the nested import at the top of the method.
def doFooWithBar(self, ...): # Import this here to avoid circular imports. from lp.registry.model.bar import Bar # ... return store.find((Foo, Bar), ...)
Circular imports and webservice exports¶
One of the largest sources of pain from circular imports is caused when you
need to export an interface on the webservice. Generally, the only way
around this is to specify generic types (like the plain old
at declaration time and then later patch the webservice’s data structures at
the bottom of the interface file.
Fortunately there are some helper functions to make this less painful, in
lib/lp/services/webservice/apihelpers.py. These are simple functions
where you can give some info about your exported class/method/parameters and
they do the rest for you.
from lp.services.webservice.apihelpers import ( patch_entry_return_type, patch_collection_return_type, ) patch_collection_return_type( IArchive, "getComponentsForQueueAdmin", IArchivePermission ) patch_entry_return_type(IArchive, "newPackageUploader", IArchivePermission)
Properties are expected to be cheap operations. It is surprising if a
property is not a cheap operation. For expensive operations use a method,
cachedproperty provides a work-around
but it should not be overused.
Remember that False, None, , and 0 are not the same although they all evaluate to False in a boolean context. If this matters in your code, be sure to check explicitly for either of them.
Also, checking the length may be an expensive operation. Casting to bool
may avoid this if the object specializes by implementing
Chaining method calls¶
Since in some cases (e.g. class methods and other objects that rely on
__get__() behaviour) it’s not possible to use the old style
of chaining method calls (
SuperClass.method(self, ...)), we should
always use the
super() builtin when we want that.
The exception to this rule is when we have class hierarchies outside of
our control that are known not to use
super() and that we want to
use for diamond-shaped inheritance.
Use of lambda, and operator.attrgetter¶
Prefer operator.attrgetter to
lambda. Remember that giving functions names makes the code that calls,
passes and returns them easier to debug.
Creating temporary files¶
We should use the most convenient method of the
tempfile module. Never
/tmp/ or any other “supposed to be there” path.
Despite being developed and deployed on Ubuntu systems, turning it into a restriction might not be a good idea.
tempfile.mkstemp remember it returns an open file descriptor
which has to be closed or bound to the open file, otherwise they will leak
and eventually hit the default Linux limit (1024).
There are two good variations according to the scope of the temporary file.
fd, filename = mkstemp() os.close(fd) ... act_on_filename(filename)
fd, filename = mkstemp() with os.fdopen(fd, "w") as temp_file: ... temp_file.write("foo")
fd, filename = mkstemp() with open(filename) as temp_file: temp_file.write("foo") # BOOM! 'fd' leaked.
In tests, you should use the
TempDir fixture instead, which cleans
itself up automatically:
from fixtures import TempDir class TestFoo(TestCase): ... def test_foo(self): tempdir = self.useFixture(TempDir).path ... do_something(os.path.join(tempdir, "test.log")) ...
To make wrapping and tabs fit the above standard, you can add the following
autocmd BufNewFile,BufRead *.py set tw=78 ts=4 sts=4 sw=4 et
To make trailing whitespace visible:
set list set listchars=tab:>.,trail:-
This will also make it obvious if you accidentally introduce a tab.
To make long lines show up:
match Error /\%>79v.\+/
For an even more in-depth Vim configuration, have a look at UltimateVimPythonSetup for a complete vim file you can copy to your local setup.
There are actually two Emacs Python modes. Emacs comes with
which has some quirks and does not seem to be as popular among hardcore
Python programmers. python-mode.el
comes with XEmacs and is supported by a group of hardcore Python
programmers. Even though it’s an add-on, it works with Emacs just fine.